Post Redux: “THE SOCIOBIOLOGY OF SOCIOPATHY: AN INTEGRATED EVOLUTIONARY MODEL”

From “THE SOCIOBIOLOGY OF SOCIOPATHY:  AN INTEGRATED EVOLUTIONARY MODEL“, Linda Mealey, Ph.D. [http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/archivos_pdf/sociobiology%C2%AD_of_sociopathy.pdf — other webpages carrying it have disappeared over time, if you want a permanent copy I’d suggest printing or downloading it.  Dr. Mealey uses the word sociopathy as a synonym for psychopathy I believe.]:

Linda Mealey

“Sociopaths are “outstanding” members of society in two senses: politically, they command attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they elicit fascination because most of us cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro-environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to chronic antisocial behavior.

. . .

Sociopaths, who comprise only 3-4% of the male population and less than 1% of the female population (Strauss & Lahey 1984, Davison and Neale 1994, Robins, Tipp & Przybeck 1991), are thought to account for approximately 20% of the United States’ prison population (Hare 1993) and between 33% and 80% of the population of chronic criminal offenders (Mednick, KirkegaardSorensen, Hutchings, Knop, Rosenberg & Schulsinger 1977, Hare 1980, Harpending & Sobus 1987). Furthermore, whereas the “typical” U.S. burglar is estimated to have committed a median five crimes per year before being apprehended, chronic offenders- those most likely to be sociopaths- report committing upward of fifty crimes per annum and sometimes as many as two or three hundred (Blumstein & Cohen 1987). Collectively, these individuals are thought to account for over 50% of all crimes in the U.S. (Loeber 1982; Mednick, Gabrielli & Hutchings 1987, Hare 1993). Whether criminal or not, sociopaths typically exhibit what is generally considered to be irresponsible and unreliable behavior; their attributes include egocentrism, an inability to form lasting personal commitments and a marked degree of impulsivity. Underlying a superficial veneer of sociability and charm, sociopaths are characterized by a deficit of the social emotions (love, shame, guilt, empathy, and remorse). On the other hand, they are not intellectually handicapped, and are often able to deceive and manipulate others through elaborate scams and ruses including fraud, bigamy, embezzlement, and other crimes which rely on the trust and cooperation of others. The sociopath is “aware of the discrepancy between his behavior and societal expectations, but he seems to be neither guided by the possibility of such a discrepancy, nor disturbed by its occurrence” (Widom 1976a, p 614). This cold- hearted and selfish approach to human interaction at one time garnered for sociopathy the moniker “moral insanity” (McCord 1983, Davison & Neale 1990).

. . .

My basic premise is that sociopaths are designed for the successful execution of social deception and that they are the product of evolutionary pressures which, through a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors, lead some individuals to pursue a life history strategy of manipulative and predatory social interactions. On the basis of game theoretic models this strategy is to be expected in the population at relatively low frequencies in a demographic pattern consistent with what we see in contemporary societies. It is also expected to appear preferentially under certain social, environmental, and developmental circumstances which I hope to delineate.

. . .

2.1.3  Sex differences and the “two-threshold” model Cloninger put forth a “two threshold” polygenic model to account for both the sex difference in sociopathy and its spectral nature (Cloninger, Reich & Guze 1975; Cloninger, Christiansen, Reich & Gottesman 1978). According to the model, sociopaths are individuals on the extreme end of a normal distribution whose genetic component is (1) polygenic and (2) to a large degree, sexlimited.  [Sex- limited genes, not to be confused with sex-linked genes, are those which are located on the autosomes of both sexes but which are triggered into expression only within the chemical/ hormonal microenvironment of one sex or the other. Common examples include beard and mustache growth in men, and breast and hip development in women.] If a large number of the many genes underlying sociopathy are triggered by testosterone or some other androgen, many more men than women will pass the threshold of the required number of active genes necessary for its outward expression.  According to the two-threshold model, those females who do express the trait must have a greater overall “dose” or “genetic load” (i.e, they are further out in the extreme of the normal distribution of genotypes) than most of the males who express the trait. This proposition has been supported by data showing that in addition to the greater overall risk for males as opposed to females, there is a also greater risk for the offspring (and other relatives) of female sociopaths as compared to the offspring (and other relatives) of male sociopaths. This phenomenon cannot be accounted for either by sex-linkage or by the differential experiences of the sexes.  Besides providing a proximate explanation for the greater incidence of male sociopathy and crime, the two-threshold model also explains on a proximate level the finding that males are more susceptible to environmental influences than females. Somewhat paradoxically, while a male will express sociopathy at a lower “genetic dose” than is required for expression in a female, the heritability of the trait is greater for females, meaning that the environmental component of the variance is greater for males (8).  The two-threshold model thus explains in a proximate sense what sociobiologists would predict from a more ultimate perspective. The fact that males are more susceptible than females to the environmental conditions of their early years fits well with sociobiological theory, in that the greater variance in male reproductive capacity makes their “choice” of life strategy somewhat more risky and therefore more subject to selective pressures (Symons 1979, Buss 1988, Mealey & Segal 1993). Sociobiological reasoning thus leads to the postulate that males should be more sensitive to environmental cues that (1) trigger environmentally-contingent or developmentally-canalized life history strategies or (2) are stimuli for which genetically based individual differences in response thresholds have evolved. (Recall mechanisms 3, 4 & 5 for the maintenance of mixed-strategy ESSs in a population.)”

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/archivos_pdf/sociobiology%C2%AD_of_sociopathy.pdf
http://generallythinking.com/research/mealey-1995-the-sociobiology-of-sociopathy/
(the latter perhaps still available thru the Wayback Machine)

So that’s why female sociopaths tend to be so spectacular — that full genetic dosage (with an element of ‘being set free’ by high testosterone levels in these particular women), for example, Stacy Castor (https://pathwhisperer.wordpress.com/2011/03/21/ah-those-spectacular-female-psychopaths-stacey-castor-the-black-widow/).  I also recall a documentary on a woman who convinced her new husband that she had cancer, disappeared for months, came back and told her husband that his wife had died from the cancer and that she was her own twin sister, took up a conjugal living arrangement with her own husband, the neighbors however called the authorities, who discovered she had murdered her earlier family (a quick search could not find the source, but I believe it was from a Kurtis Productions documentary (American Justice or Justice Files)).  Kurtis Productions has an excellent series of documentaries on psychopathy which are never re-shown (for some reason).

Unfortunately Linda Mealey passed away in 2002 from colon and liver cancer (induced?) (https://www.csbsju.edu/psychology/faculty/linda-j-mealey-phd).  If she had been able to continue her research I’m confident that sociopathy (psychopathy) would be publicly understood to a much greater extent than it is now.  I do believe that all the ‘big questions’ of psychopathy have been answered, but by psychopathic psychopathy experts and scientists who hold the answers closely.

In an unsuccessful search for her CV, I found this discussion, Evolution and Machiavelliansim (p. 253), from Barbara Oakley’s “Evil Genes”, which may be of interest.

Final versions of The Sociobiology of Sociopathy may be available for download (at cost) here:  https://philpapers.org/rec/MEATSO-2, and https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences/article/the-sociobiology-of-sociopathy-an-integrated-evolutionary-model/A5F1DDC8F0D32E036B725FE7BFA761AF.

My original post from 2011:  https://pathwhisperer.info/2011/08/07/the-sociobiology-of-sociopathy-an-integrated-evolutionary-model-linda-mealey/.

Julian Assange: “You can’t hide who you are from an animal”

“You can’t hide who you are from an animal.

On the left political prisoner On the right fashion advisor Senator @BenSasse

Cat related posts:

Online psychopathy advisor/consultant

I am offering my services as an online psychopathy advisor/consultant.

Perhaps the reader is already aware of the high number of morally defective pre-adolescents in the world, but doesn’t recognize them or their strategies in time.  Perhaps the reader is interested in determining which Machiavellians are psychopathic and which aren’t.

Or perhaps the reader is trying to understand events in their own life.

Or perhaps an attorney wants to bounce ideas around.

The pricing would work as follows:  $25 for a brief analysis of the situation (that you would send in the initial email).  I would seek to ascertain whether I agree that the situation involved [a] psychopath[s] and/or whether I had anything to offer.  If both were in the affirmative, the submitter could then choose, for an additional $75, to have me analyze the original situation email plus send in two follow up emails for further discussion.  Confidentiality would be assured.

Long term arrangements would also be possible.

If anyone so desires, I can be reached at pathwhisperer@yahoo.com.  Currently payments would be through Paypal.

Genetic cocktail — psychopathy genetic markers

http://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/embed_code/31766563?hostedIn=slideshare&referer=http://www.slideshare.net/adonissfera#

DRD2 A1, DRD4 7-repeat, 5HTTLPR/rs25531, COMPT (or COMT) Met108/158, MAOA-L (corrections welcome).

So, . . .which one, if any of these, is the no fellow-human-feeling, no empathy, no guilt gene, . . .where do full-genetic-dose psychopaths such as Stacey Castor or Michael Swango fall on this (actually they are not full spectrum full dose psychopaths — they did have the capacity to exercise restraint and to strategize, but on the other-humans-are-just-bugs continuum they are full dose)?

Sociopathy and the NYPD

1.  Flaking:  Planting narcotics on law abiding citizens to improve arrest record.

NYPD “Cowboy Culture”: Narcotics Detective Guilty Of Planting Drugs

The Brooklyn South narcotics detective accused of planting drugs on a woman and her boyfriend was convicted yesterday. Jason Arbeeny, a 14-year NYPD veteran, was guilty of eight counts of falsifying records and official misconduct for planting drugs on innocent suspects in order to reach quotas. And the judge in the case scolded the narcotics department for their “cowboy culture” and widespread corruption: “Having been a judge for 20 years, I thought I was not naïve regarding the reality of narcotics enforcement. But even the Court was shocked, not only by the seeming pervasive scope of the misconduct, but even more distressingly by the seeming casualness by which such conduct is employed,” said Supreme Court Justice Gustin Reichbach before handing out his verdict.  http://gothamist.com/2011/11/02/nypd_narcotics_detective_found_guil.php

More info here:  http://joebrunoonthemob.wordpress.com/tag/jason-arbeeny/

I am not saying that all the officers involved are sociopathic, but I am arguing that the presence of a sociopathic ‘bad seed’ greatly influences such crimes.  The presence of sociopathic police officers plays a huge role in further corrupting those inclined to be corrupt.  To sociopathic police officers and/or prosecutors guilt and innocence are of no concern, their only concern would be their own interest.

2.  NYPD entrapment of Occupy Wall Street on the Brooklyn Bridge.

NYC White Shirt Police Commanders Entrap Occupy Wall Street; Arrest 500, or is it 700

I have now heard from several people who were in the protest and they all say they were led onto the Brooklyn Bridge roadway by the police. The protesters were walking on the pedestrian passageway that crosses the bridge. They were led onto the roadway by the police. About a third of the way across the bridge the police trapped them with plastic orange netting. Those arrested were held in plastic cuffs for hours, then brought to various jails and released in the early morning hours. This video shows the police quite clearly leading the Occupiers onto the roadway.  http://october2011.org/blogs/kevin-zeese/nyc-white-shirt-police-commanders-entrap-occupy-wall-street-arrest-500-join-occupy

Personally I’m convinced that it was entrapment.  I am not going to entertain the counter argument.  Readers can make up their mind.  For more info:

Occupy Wall Street – the story of the Brooklyn Bridge ‘trap’

Police accused of luring Occupy Wall Street protesters into trap before arresting 700 on Brooklyn Bridge

Police Arrest More Than 700 Protesters on Brooklyn Bridge

Rule of Law vs. the Forces of Order

Whenever you hear, in your mind’s ear, that ‘chortle, chortle’ response, suspect sociopathy.  The brain trust for the NYPD that came up with the Brooklyn Bridge arrest plan (leading them onto the bridge, kettling them and then arresting them) should be fired or at a minimum the members evaluated for sociopathy.

Sociopaths live in a very simple world:  power, powerlessness; high up on the foodchain, low on the foodchain.  It would make sense to a sociopath that this arrest technique would smash the will of the protesters, it would have smashed their will.  For sociopaths there is no ‘butt they won’t kiss’, they would always make the live-on-their-knees rather than the dying-on-their feet choice — they have no pride, shame or honor (due to their state of childish arrested development).  They cannot understand those who say ‘this mountain I will not climb,’ ‘this line I will not cross.’  Apparently the elite expected/expects the American middle class to crawl away and die.  This will not happen.

3.  NYPD officers fixing records (cases?).

The recent scandal of parking ticket fixing (which must have gotten out of hand to be brought into court) makes me wonder how high this goes.  Do the white shirts get away with outright criminal schemes?  It seems sometimes that the NYPD white shirts are criminal princes of the city.  I have heard of relatives of white shirts getting DUI arrests dropped (some even that involved fatalities).

A court case I visited (and a post I never made, I didn’t become interested in time) concerned the accused Darryl Littlejohn in the Imette St. Guilen murder.  From what I heard in court, it seems quite possible that he was either guilty and framed to put away a really bad guy, or innocent and framed to protect relatives of NYPD brass.  No DNA evidence showed up (by admission of the lab) until a NYPD relative volunteered to come in on his own time (and unsupervised, as I recall) to prepare the samples to be tested.  These samples were then tested by supervisor ‘K’, who had sat in, much earlier, on meetings with the prosecutor and NYPD brass (including the relative of another ‘person of interest’, the bar owner) regarding the importance of proving Mr. Littlejohn’s guilt (improper behavior for a neutral lab, to put it mildly).  Prior tests of prior samples by other members of the lab had found nothing.  She found nothing odd in then finding multiple positive DNA matches.

I was very suspicious of sociopathy involvement in the case.  The witnesses, the jurors, the prosecutor and the judge should always be screened for sociopathy in all cases.

More info:  http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/s/imette_st_guillen/index.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Imette_St._Guillen

4.  The incidences of innocent victims being shot multiple times.

http://gothamist.com/2008/03/25/31shot_cop_i_di.php

The problem isn’t simply the primary shooter, but the sociopathic officer’s ability to instill a gang mentality (instantaneously) and draw others into his action.

5.  On a personal level, the worst case of possible sociopathy in the NYPD I personally heard of, concerned officers and a couple I knew in Queens.  She had become romantically involved with an officer called in to handle a domestic complaint against her husband.  The claim (which I came to believe) was, that over time, the cops beat him up, stole his car, entered his premises at will, harassed him, etc.  Among many problems is that the only location to make a complaint against an officer or seek police investigative help is the officer(s)’ own precinct — a non-starter.   A DA wouldn’t want to hear the case without indisputable evidence, but how could the husband get that evidence without police powers?  If he resorted to private investigators he risked opening himself up to stalking charges.  There needs to be an outside office charged with the responsibility to investigate complaints against NYPD members, it can not be (and is not) self-policing.  In my experience, sociopathic police officers think they have landed in clover, to put it mildly.

Earlier post:   Stripping & stripsearching women for a living, NYPD Det. Charles Derosalia 
https://pathwhisperer.wordpress.com/2010/10/04/that-flavor-of-sociopathy-%E2%80%94-current-stories-in-the%C2%A0news/
(in the bottom third of the post).

“Criminal Minds — Will testing the brain, even before birth, separate the good seeds from the bad?”

More Adrian Raine.

. . . a series of studies using magnetic resonance imaging, which reveals structures and shapes, showed that criminals and people who scored high on tests of antisocial disorders had a smaller than normal orbitofrontal region and amygdala. And the corpus callosum, the communications bridge between the brain’s two hemispheres, was abnormally large.

. . . [Adrian Raine] needed to go back even further and look for a defect that begins before birth and can still be detected in adults. Raine found it in a hole in the head. More precisely, a thin wall of brain tissue that separates a hole—all brains have these spaces—into two. The hole appears during the 12th week of a fetus’s development, and the wall—pushed forward by a normally developing amygdala and other brain areas—divides it by the 20th week. When the wall doesn’t form completely, a condition known by the jawbreaking name of cavum septum pellucidum, it’s usually a sign of abnormal development in the amygdala and other structures. Years later, in adults, the failed wall can be spotted in a brain scan.

In a 2010 paper, Raine and his colleagues compared people with and without the feature on several fronts. The groups were tested for antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and aggression. Their records were searched for criminal arrests and convictions. In every single one of those areas, there were a lot more men and women with the wall defect. Here, finally, was evidence tracing criminality back to the womb, before any head-banging could occur.

“I think there’s no longer any question, scientifically, that there’s an association between the brain and criminal behavior. We’re beyond the point of debating that,” says Raine. “Every study can be criticized on methodology. But when you look at the whole, at all the different designs, it’s just hard to deny there is something going on with biology.”

“It [sociopathy] is human biodiversity like homosexuality”

Exactly.  The above quote is from commenter faintsmile1992.

Some people are born with Devonian polydactyly or a tapeta lucida, others are born with empathy deficits and it does not make us monsters,it is human biodiversity like homosexualityhttps://pathwhisperer.wordpress.com/2010/01/25/the-psychopathic-personality-and-human-evolution-and-why-cant-women-recognize-psychopaths/#comment-65086

She also wrote,

And of course we (I am diagnosed Dissocial) do not want to ‘go the way of Downs Syndrome babies’. Would you like to see people with empathy go extinct? Most vertebrates lack empathy, we’d do just fine without you.https://pathwhisperer.wordpress.com/2011/02/23/pws-1st-subterranean-sociopathy-problem-of-vast-social-impact-sociopaths-as-a-pillar-of-the-anti-abortion-movement/#comment-65082

I believe every reader of this currently knows individuals who are sociopathic.  Most would have one or two in their extended families (out to the first cousin level).  This would support a percentage of a 5% sociopathic population (1 in 20, though much higher among stock traders).  People just don’t realize that this kind of human diversity exists.